From Meghalaya to Manipur: Exploring the Diverse Flora and Fauna of North East India

Introduction: Diverse Flora and Fauna of North East India

North East India is a haven for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts, boasting an incredible diverrse flora and fauna of North East India. From lush rainforests to pristine national parks, this region is home to a wide range of plant and animal species, some of which are found nowhere else in the world. In this blog, we will introduce you to the rich biodiversity of North East India, showcasing the diverse flora and fauna in different states of the region. Get ready to embark on a journey through the natural wonders of Meghalaya, Manipur, and beyond.

North East India is a region known for its rich biodiversity, lush green forests, and unique flora and fauna. Spanning across seven states, including Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura, this region is a paradise for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers. In this article, we will explore the diverse flora and fauna of North East India, highlighting some of the region’s most iconic species.


The North East region boasts a remarkable variety of plant species due to its favorable climatic conditions and topography. The evergreen rainforests, deciduous forests, and alpine vegetation contribute to the region’s botanical diversity. One of the most notable plant species found in this region is the orchid. With over a thousand species, including rare and endemic varieties, North East India is often referred to as the “orchid paradise.” These delicate and colorful flowers can be found adorning the trees and forest floors.

Rhododendrons are another significant group of plants in this region. With their vibrant blooms in various shades of red, pink, and white, these flowering shrubs create a picturesque landscape. The Sirohi Lily, a beautiful and endangered lily species, is also endemic to the region and is considered one of the symbols of North East India’s floral diversity.

Bamboos, which are an essential part of the region’s ecosystem, thrive in the dense forests. They provide habitat and sustenance to various animal species. The North East is also known for its aromatic and medicinal plants, such as tezpata, lemon grass, and turmeric, which have significant cultural and economic importance.


The North East region is home to an incredible array of wildlife, including several endangered and endemic species. The region’s forests are inhabited by majestic mammals like the Asian elephant, Indian rhinoceros, Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, and golden cat. The Kaziranga National Park in Assam is renowned for its successful conservation efforts in protecting the Indian rhinoceros, making it a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The rare Hoolock gibbon, one of the only two species of apes found in India, swings through the treetops of the region’s forests. The endangered red panda, known for its vibrant red fur and bushy tail, is also found in the North East. Other notable mammals include the capped langur, slow loris, takin, and the rare and elusive snow leopard.

North East India is a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 800 species of birds recorded. The region’s avifauna includes various pheasants like the endangered Blyth’s tragopan and the beautiful Himalayan monal. Bird species such as the great hornbill, wreathed hornbill, and the rare white-winged duck are also found here. The wetlands of Assam attract a large number of migratory birds during the winter season, including the Siberian crane.

The rivers of North East India are home to unique aquatic species. The Ganges river dolphin, one of the rarest and most endangered freshwater dolphins, can be spotted in the Brahmaputra River. The region’s water bodies also support a variety of fish species, including the golden mahseer, a prized game fish known for its strength and size.

In addition to the diverse flora and fauna, the North East region is also inhabited by numerous indigenous communities that have a deep connection with nature. Their traditional knowledge and sustainable practices contribute to the conservation of the region’s biodiversity.

North East India’s flora and fauna are a testament to the region’s ecological richness. From the vibrant orchids and rhododendrons to the majestic elephants and tigers, the region offers a unique and captivating experience for nature enthusiasts. Preserving the diverse ecosystems of North East India is crucial for maintaining the delicate balance of its flora and fauna and ensuring a sustainable future for generations to come.

Meghalaya: The Abode of Clouds

Meghalaya, aptly named the “Abode of Clouds,” is known for its dense rainforests and picturesque landscapes. Explore the living root bridges of Cherrapunji and Mawlynnong, which are unique to this region. Trek through the Nokrek National Park, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, to spot the rare and elusive red panda. Marvel at the stunning waterfalls, including the majestic Nohkalikai Waterfall, and immerse yourself in the serene beauty of the Shillong Peak.


Manipur: The Jewel of the East

Manipur, often referred to as the “Jewel of the East,” is a treasure trove of biodiversity. Keibul Lamjao National Park, the world’s only floating national park, is home to the endangered Sangai deer, also known as the Manipur brow-antlered deer. Explore Loktak Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India, and spot migratory birds and the unique phumdis (floating vegetation). Discover the diverse avifauna of Keibul Lamjao and the picturesque Shirui Hills, known for the rare Shirui Lily.


Assam: The Land of the One-Horned Rhinoceros

Assam is famous for its wildlife, with Kaziranga National Park being the crown jewel. Embark on a thrilling safari to spot the majestic one-horned rhinoceros, elephants, tigers, and a myriad of bird species. Take a boat ride on the Brahmaputra River and witness the Ganges River Dolphin, an endangered species. Visit Manas National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, to explore its diverse ecosystems and wildlife.


Arunachal Pradesh: The Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains

Arunachal Pradesh, also known as the “Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains,” is a paradise for nature enthusiasts. Trek through the Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary to encounter a variety of bird species, including the rare and elusive Bugun Liocichla. Explore Namdapha National Park, known for its rich biodiversity, and catch a glimpse of the clouded leopard, snow leopard, and Hoolock Gibbon. Immerse yourself in the beauty of the Sela Pass and the Tawang Valley, surrounded by snow-capped peaks.


Tips for Wildlife Enthusiasts and Nature Lovers:


  • Hire experienced guides or join organized wildlife tours for a better understanding of the region’s flora and fauna.
  • Carry binoculars, cameras, and field guides to help with wildlife and bird identification.
  • Respect the natural habitats and follow ethical practices while observing wildlife.
  • Learn about the conservation efforts and support local initiatives aimed at protecting the region’s biodiversity.
  • Be prepared for varying weather conditions, especially in higher altitude regions.
  • Pack essentials such as insect repellent, sunscreen, and appropriate clothing for outdoor activities.

In conclusion, North East India is a treasure trove of diverse flora and fauna, offering a glimpse into the wonders of the natural world. From the cloud-kissed peaks of Meghalaya to the floating park of Manipur, the region showcases a remarkable variety of plant species, rare animals, and vibrant birdlife. Embark on a journey through the biodiversity hotspots of North East India and witness the magic of this awe-inspiring region.

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